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Development is going digital and INGOs like Oxfam have a vital convening role to play. This paper draws on ICT for Development in Oxfam's programmes in the Horn, East and Central Africa to consider what this role is. In order to realise the opportunities associated with the digital landscape, Oxfam will need to build internal and external capacity to implement ICT in programmes to enhance quality, accessibility, and efficiency.
In 2015, the EU and its member states set up the 'EU Emergency Trust Fund for stability and addressing root causes of irregular migration and displaced persons in Africa' to promote stability and economic opportunities and to strengthen resilience.An Oxfam analysis of all the projects approved under the instrument shows that its flexible nature has generated both opportunities and risks. This briefing argues that the Fund lacks sufficient checks and balances to ensure that European interests do not take precedence over the needs of the people that aid is intended to help.
The Africa Mining Vision (AMV) is a policy framework that was created by the African Union in 2009 to ensure that Africa uses its mineral resources strategically for broad-based, inclusive development. Eight years after its inception, implementation has been slow and there is a low level of awareness of the framework among key stakeholders in the mineral sector.This paper shows that the AMV has specific weaknesses that should be addressed through its national implementation, in order to enhance the benefits for African citizens. Africa's leaders and citizens must act now to ensure that the goals of the AMV are realized. It is a transformative policy that can drive sustainable development on the continent.Ã‚Â
High levels of inequality across Africa have prevented much of the benefits of recent growth from reaching the continent's poorest people. To combat inequality in Africa, political and business leaders have to shape a profoundly different type of economy. It must start with the needs of Africa's women and young people for good quality sustainable jobs, rather than the needs of the richest and of foreign investors. Leaders must use economic policy, taxation policy and social spending to build a human economy for Africa.
Nearly eleven million people in Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia are dangerously hungry and in need of humanitarian assistance. The worst drought-affected areas in Somalia are on the brink of famine.There is growing scientific analysis suggesting that the impacts of current and recent droughts in East Africa are likely to have been aggravated by climate change. Climate change is not a distant, future threat. As this briefing explains, it is helping fuel this emerging catastrophe in which poverty, chronic malnutrition, weak governance, conflict, drought and climate change have combined to create a perfect storm.Governments across the region and around the world need to take responsibility and provide humanitarian assistance to save lives now. Humanitarian aid needs to be coupled with longer term support to promote the resilience of pastoralists and smallholder food producers. Without global efforts to reduce emissions and to help the world's poorest people cope with the effects of climate change, this crisis will continue to repeat itself.
International Action Network on Small Arms;
Africa suffers enormously from conflict and armed violence. As well as the human tragedy, armed conflict costs Africa around $18bn per year, seriously derailing development. The most commonly used weapons in Africa's conflicts are Kalashnikov assault rifles. The vast majority of these weapons and their ammunition - perhaps 95 per cent - come from outside Africa. To protect lives and livelihoods, the 2008 UN Group of Governmental Experts working on the Arms Trade Treaty must ensure swift progress towards a strong and effective Treaty. All governments have a role to play in ensuring its success.
Africa is at a crossroads. Despite the development efforts of the past two decades, Africans are getting poorer. Over 300 million people live on less than US$1 dollar per day. Life expectancy is 48 years and falling. Twenty-eight million people are living with HIV/AIDS, and 40 per cent of children are out of school. The responsibility for this crisis lies within the continent and outside it. There is a glaring absence of accountable governance at national, regional, and global levels. Only by ending the 'business as usual' approach to Africa can the situation change.
One of the most remarkable turn-arounds in development occurred in the last decade in many of the countries south of the Sahara. Economies have been growing even in the face of economic and financial instability elsewhere in the world; poverty has fallen and child mortality has dropped considerably, among the most visible indicators of progress. But the number of people suffering from undernourishment (a proxy for hunger) has kept rising. There are several reasons to be optimistic about Africa despite the fact that hunger remains pervasive. Sub-Saharan Africa is wide-awake, dynamic and on the move, but still hungry.
Multinational companies cheated Africa out of US$11bn through just one of their tax dodging tricks - trade mispricing - in 2010. Africa is growing economically, but billions of dollars a year are flowing out of the continent. This deprives governments of vital potential investments in healthcare and education for all, and sustainable agriculture.Securing Africa's economic rise will be top of the agenda at the 25th World Economic Forum-Africa in Cape Town. Oxfam is calling on business and political leaders to demand an intergovernmental tax body to reform the global tax rules so that multinational companies pay their fair share of tax in Africa.
HIV/AIDS poses a development challenge of unprecedented urgency, especially in Africa. Apart from the terrible personal costs, the pandemic is the single biggest threat to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals. Over one-third of HIV/AIDS sufferers live in countries classified as heavily indebted. Repayments to creditors by these countries are diverting resources needed to break the links between ill-health and poverty. Radical reform of the Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative is vital to mobilise the resources needed to protect current and future generations from the threat posed by HIV/AIDS.
For people to be hungry in Africa in the 21st century is neither inevitable nor morally acceptable. The world's emergency response requires an overhaul so that it delivers prompt, equitable, and effective assistance to people suffering from lack of food. More fundamentally, governments need to tackle the root causes of hunger, which include poverty, agricultural mismanagement, conflict, unfair trade rules, and the unprecedented problems of HIV/AIDS and climate change. The promised joint effort of African governments and donors to eradicate poverty must deliver pro-poor rural policies that prioritise the needs of marginalised rural groups such as small-holders, pastoralists, and women.
Southern Africa is facing a serious humanitarian crisis with severe long-term consequences affecting the entire region. Erratic rainfall, poor governance, poverty, unsustainable debt, failing agricultural policies, unfair international trade regimes, and collapsing public services have all contributed to the current situation, but without HIV/AIDS the crisis would not be of the same dimensions. The HIV/AIDS pandemic is at the heart of the crisis, which threatens the lives of some 16 million people. In some of the most countries affected, rates of HIV/AIDS prevalence are as high as 33 per cent, with widespread effects on health, education, and productivity throughout society.