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Carnegie Middle East Center;
Today, four of the five pillars that had sustained Lebanon are collapsing, creating fears for the future.
Syrian refugees living in informal tented settlements in Lebanon are in a difficult position, being last in line for public water and other unregulated water sources. Humanitarian aid agencies have been delivering water by trucks, and while this has ensured Syrians have adequate non-contaminated water, it has come at a financial and environmental cost. Water sources are being depleted and aid agencies are spending considerable sums to provide a service that is not sustainable.This study looks at the obstacles to providing more sustainable solutions: extending piped public water to settlements, focusing on the financial, social and legal feasibility requirements. A multi-level governance approach is recommended to address water supply to all affected communities.
Lebanese Center for Policy Studies;
Lebanon currently hosts the largest number of refugees per capita in the world. Donors have recognized the scale of the challenge and have offered support both in the form of humanitarian assistance and in multi-year development financing. This briefing paper is based on extensive research conducted in partnership with the Lebanese Center for Policy Studies (LCPS). It urges donors and policy makers to ensure that new financing to Lebanon is rights-based, accountable to local populations, reflects local priorities, benefits the most vulnerable and does not exacerbate pre-existing structural issues.
Lebanon hosts approximately 1.5 million Syrians who have fled the war in their country since 2011. Funding for assistance for refugees and refugee-affected populations in Lebanon is declining sharply across all sectors. As of January 2018, only 9% of the year's WASH sector appeal had been secured. Unless more funding is secured there will be substantial reductions in WASH services for refugee communities.This report is an analysis of impacts and risks of reduced and limited WASH funding on Syrian refugees in informal tented settlements in Bekaa, Lebanon.
Open Society Institute;
Examines trends in Lebanon's digital media consumption, including its impact on public broadcasters, activism, journalism, and plurality; digital technology; digital media ownership, funding, and business models; and policies, laws, and regulations.
The crisis in Syria, which entered its fourth year in March 2014, continues to take a devastating toll on the country's civilian population. More than 100,000 people have lost their lives, hundreds of thousands have suffered injuries, and civilian property and livelihoods are destroyed on a daily basis. The conflict has led to mass displacement. An estimated 6.5 million people are displaced within Syria, and 2.8 million refugees have fled to neighbouring countries and North Africa.Lebanon hosts over 1 million registered Syrian refugees, more than any other country, making it the largest per capita recipient of refugees in the world. This is in addition to hundreds of thousands of Syrians living in Lebanon without UN assistance and over 50,000 Palestinian refugees from Syria who have fled to Lebanon. Turkey hosts the second largest number of Syrian refugees, around 735,888 people, followed by Jordan, Iraq and Egypt. A small number of those fleeing Syria, some 81,000 people, have claimed asylum in the European Union (EU), Norway and Switzerland.The UN estimates that there will be over 1.5 million Syrian refugees in Lebanon by the end of 2014, which would constitute more than one third of Lebanon's population prior to the conflict in Syria.The social, economic and security strain on Lebanon resulting from hosting such a large number of people from Syria -- particularly given the country's already stressed infrastructure -- has been acknowledged by the international community. However, this has not translated into sufficient support for Lebanon. Health care, water and sanitation facilities, shelter, and other resources that were already strained have been put under further pressure due to the huge and rapid increase in population. Poverty and unemployment are expected to increase, putting financial pressure on a country which already faces one of the highest debt ratios globally.The political and security situation in Lebanon has also been deeply affected by the fighting in Syria with an upsurge in violence in border areas including Arsal in northeast Lebanon, in Tripoli in the north of the country, and in Beirut, Lebanon's capital.To help support the vast number of refugees in the country, the UN has appealed for US$1.7 billion for Lebanon in 2014, as part of a US$4.2 billion UN appeal for Syrian refugees.Yet at the time of writing, only 17% of the funding requirements for Lebanon for 2014 have been met. As a result of the lack of funding, many refugees from Syria are being left without adequate access to health care, food, shelter, water and sanitation, and education.
The evaluation of an Oxfam GB cash-for-rent project for Syrian refugees in Lebanon commissioned by the DEC.
Since the outbreak of the crisis in Syria in March 2011, Lebanon has felt the impact politically, socially and economically. More than four years into the crisis and with an all-out war on its doorstep, the country is experiencing ever greater repercussions. Lebanon now hosts the highest number of refugees per capita in the world, with one in five inhabitants a refugee.This paper draws on Oxfam's research among refugees and host communities in Lebanon in 2015. It aims to contribute to an urgent discussion of both interim and longer term solutions to address protection issues, living conditions, access to services and reduced aid dependency for refugees; along with stronger social protection, access to services and greater employment opportunities for poor and vulnerable Lebanese.
Issam Fares Institute of the American University, Beirut;
The impact of the Syria crisis on Lebanon is immense and multidimensional. The massive population influx has put huge pressure on the labour market and employment, while also driving up prices for consumables and the cost of shelter. The number of people living under the poverty line in Lebanon has risen by 66 percent since 2011, and the World Bank estimates that an extra 170,000 Lebanese became poor between 2011 and 2014. Around 350,000 Syrian refugees in Lebanon are estimated to be unable to meet their minimum survival requirements and another 350,000 Lebanese live on less than $1 per day. As people living in extreme poverty, they are more vulnerable to homelessness, illness, malnutrition and risky coping strategies.This report is the result of research by Oxfam and the American University, Beirut in an effort to gain a better insight into the lives and struggles of poor Lebanese households alongside Syrian and Palestinian refugee populations in Lebanon. It assesses the policies and programmes implemented by the government and international donors to provide a level of support and social protection. This research contributed to the Oxfam briefing paper 'Lebanon Looking Ahead in Times of Crisis'.
The conflict in Syria has created a humanitarian crisis, with almost two million people having fled to neighbouring countries in the hope of escaping the violence. Thousands of Syrian refugees continue to enter Lebanon each week, putting increasing pressure on the ability of host communities and aid agencies to provide them with support. The situation has created intense levels of stress for refugees, as in many cases they are forced to take on new responsibilities at odds with their traditional gendered social roles.In order to understand these changing roles, Oxfam and the ABAAD-Resource Centre for Gender Equality conducted a gender situation and vulnerability assessment among Syrian refugees and Palestinian refugees from Syria now living in Lebanon. The findings are presented in this report, which aims to contribute to an improved understanding of the gendered impact of the Syrian conflict and subsequent displacement on refugees now in Lebanon. The report concludes with detailed recommendations for development and humanitarian practitioners and donor agencies, to help them design and implement gender-sensitive programming that addresses these shifting gender roles and helps to minimize stress and tensions among refugee populations (at individual, household and community levels) and between refugee and host communities.
Beirut Research and Information Center;
There are an estimated one million refugees from Syria living in Lebanon, with more arriving every day. As the situation in Syria continues to deteriorate, it is increasingly likely that many will remain in Lebanon for many months, if not years, to come. The Beirut Research and Innovation Center was commissioned by Oxfam to survey 260 households, representing 1,591 individuals, about their living conditions, sources of income and expenditure patterns, coping mechanisms and perceptions of life in Lebanon. The survey shows that many families are spiralling deeper into debt, living in cramped conditions, with few job prospects and dwindling hope for the future.
This evaluation report is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2013/14, selected for review under the humanitarian response thematic area using the application of Oxfam's Humanitarian Indicator Toolkit (HIT). The report presents findings from the evaluation carried out between October and December 2013, of Oxfam's humanitarian response to the Syria crisis in Lebanon between July 2012 and October 2013.Three years of civil war in Syria has resulted in 2.2 million people fleeing across the border into neighbouring countries. To date, approximately 800,000 refugees, the majority of whom are women and children, have sought refuge in Lebanon. To date, Oxfam has reached 120,000 people in the North Tripoli area, East Lebanon (Bekaa Valley and Baalbek) and Beirut. The programme focus has been on distribution of winterisation kits (blankets, mattresses and pillows), and hygiene kits; distribution of vouchers for food, clothing and kits; cash transfers for rent payment; installation and repair of WASH facilities; and information dissemination, advice and referrals on protection issues. There has also been an advocacy element surrounding access to assistance and protection and finding a political solution to the crisis.Humanitarian Indicator Tool (HIT) is a methodology designed to estimate the degree to which the programme meets 13 recognised quality standards via a pilot field visit.Read more about the Oxfam Effectiveness Reviews.